Traveling, especially to places that look and feel different than Pennsylvania where I have lived for all of my life, is so exciting! Fortunately for me, I had the chance to go out to New Mexico to do some photography this past summer! It was amazing to see the many plant & animal adaptations to a desert. For a climate that only gets around 9 inches of rain/year it’s amazing anything lives at all, but everything has their own adaptations to help them survive.
For example, many plants have thick, waxy layers, called cuticles, to prevent excess water loss. The spines of the cacti prevent other animals from getting too close and eating through (although animals always find a way!). Even buds look thick and rubbery!
While it may be uncommon to see groundwater, it’s really not that far underground! The roots of trees and plants go down deep to take advantage of this and in a location like White Sands National Monument, you can even dig your toes into the sand (actually, it’s gypsum that’s been deposited by runoff from the San Andreas and Sacramento Mountains) and feel how much cooler it gets!
In White Sands, you can see a variety of scraggly looking plants such as Yucca. These can continue growing even when their trunk is completely covered! Trees and plants are great for soil retention. As wind blows the gypsum around, it collects at the base of the Yucca. The yucca will continue to grow, no matter how tall a dune builds up around it. As long as its leaves are exposed to the sunlight, it can undergo photosynthesis and grow. In fact, there are very small Yuccas that look as if they are only 1-2ft. tall, when really, they are 10+ ft. and are simply buried!
It’s not just plants that need to survive though, animals do too! New Mexican animals have behavioral and morphological adaptations helping them survive the heat and dryness. Many are crepuscular (out at dawn and dusk) or nocturnal to avoid the heat and sun of the day. Those animals have a burrow or cave that they sleep in during the day to keep them cool. Diurnal animals, like the Jack Rabbit, rest in the shade before heading to their next hiding spot! Their big ears also help to release heat and keep them cool.
Hummingbirds can handle higher body temperatures, which is great in warm environments. They also take advantage of the beautiful plants around them and dart around in search of nectar. This keeps them fueled and in turn helps the plants survive by pollinating them. Lizards, like the Little Striped Whiptail, are very speedy (making them hard to photograph!) which keeps their feet from touching the hot ground for too long.
In terms of water, many small mammals and reptiles rely heavily on metabolic moisture. When an animal eats seeds or insects, it retains most of the water that it’s food had. Therefore, it doesn’t need to drink nearly as often, if at all. In fact, when the reptiles excrete waste, it is a dry, powdery substance called uric acid. This prevents water loss. Rodents, have specialized kidneys that are able to remove water from the toxins in their urine and recycle it in their body.
While I really wanted a New Mexican Bird of Paradise for my garden and a Quail family, they would be unsuited to the PA environment. It’s amazing how animals and plants are so unique and fit so well into their habitat!
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